Multiple researchers and PhD students have contributed to the publications produced so far from the BILD study.  Here we list some of the most relevant articles that have come out of the research we are doing over the years.  If you are interested in learning more detail about the BILD study design, methodology and strategic aims, a good place to start would be the cohort profile publication, accessed free-of-charge via the following link:

  Oliver Fuchs, Philipp Latzin, Claudia E Kuehni, Urs Frey (2012)  Cohort profile: the Bern infant lung development cohort. International journal of epidemiology 41:  2.  366-376 Apr.  


Dynamics of respiratory symptoms during infancy and associations with wheezing at school age. Usemann J, Xu B, Delgado-Eckert E, Korten I, Anagnostopoulou P, Gorlanova O, Kuehni C, Röösli M, Latzin P, Frey U. ERJ Open Res. 2018 Nov 20;4(4). pii: 00037-2018. doi: 10.1183/23120541.00037-2018. eCollection 2018 Oct. PMID:30474038

Variability of Tidal Breathing Parameters in Preterm Infants and Associations with Respiratory Morbidity during Infancy: A Cohort Study. Usemann J, Suter A, Zannin E, Proietti E, Fouzas S, Schulzke S, Latzin P, Frey U; BILD study group. J Pediatr. 2018 Nov 8. pii: S0022-3476(18)31414-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.10.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30416016

Neighbourhood child population density as a proxy measure for exposure to respiratory infections in the first year of life: A validation study. Lupatsch JE, Kreis C, Korten I, Latzin P, Frey U, Kuehni CE, Spycher BD. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 12;13(9):e0203743. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203743. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30208077

Protective effects of breastfeeding on respiratory symptoms in infants with 17q21 asthma risk variants. Gorlanova O, Illi S, Toncheva AA, Usemann J, Latzin P, Kabesch M, Dalphin JC, Lauener R, Pekkanen JR, Von Mutius E, Riedler J, Kuehni CE, Röösli M, Frey U; BILD and PASTURE study groups. Allergy. 2018 Dec;73(12):2388-2392. doi: 10.1111/all.13568. Epub 2018 Aug 9. No abstract available.  PMID: 30030842

Response of cord blood cells to environmental, hereditary and perinatal factors: A prospective birth cohort study. Lurà MP, Gorlanova O, Müller L, Proietti E, Vienneau D, Reppucci D, Pavlovic R, Dahinden C, Röösli M, Latzin P, Frey U. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 6;13(7):e0200236. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200236. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29979752

Glucocorticoid metabolites in newborns: A marker for traffic noise related stress? Cantuaria ML, Usemann J, Proietti E, Blanes-Vidal V, Dick B, Flück CE, Rüedi S, Héritier H, Wunderli JM, Latzin P, Frey U, Röösli M, Vienneau D; BILD study group. Environ Int. 2018 Aug;117:319-326. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.002. Epub 2018 May 17. PMID: 29778832

Nasal Microbiota and Respiratory Tract Infections: The Role of Viral Detection. Korten I, Ramsey K, Mika M, Usemann J, Frey U, Hilty M, Latzin P. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 8. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201710-2020LE. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.  PMID: 29518345

Respiratory viruses in healthy infants and infants with cystic fibrosis: a prospective cohort study. Korten I, Kieninger E, Klenja S, Mack I, Schläpfer N, Barbani MT, Regamey N, Kuehni CE, Hilty M, Frey U, Gorgievski M, Casaulta C, Latzin P; SCILD and BILD study groups. Thorax. 2018 Jan;73(1):13-20. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209553. Epub 2017 Aug 4. DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209553. PMID: 28778921

Infant multiple breath washout using a new commercially available device: Ready to replace the previous setup? Kentgens AC, Guidi M, Korten I, Kohler L, Binggeli S, Singer F, Latzin P, Anagnostopoulou P. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 May;53(5):628-635. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23959. Epub 2018 Feb 8. PMID: 29418075

Lower exhaled nitric oxide in infants with Cystic Fibrosis compared to healthy controls. Korten I, Liechti M, Singer F, Hafen G, Rochat I, Anagnostopoulou P, Müller-Suter D, Usemann J, Moeller A, Frey U, Latzin P, Casaulta C; SCILD and BILD study group. J Cyst Fibros. 2018 Jan;17(1):105-108. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2017.05.005. Epub 2017 Jul 14. PMID: 28716479


Nyilas S, Bauman G, Sommer G, Stranzinger E, Pusterla O, Frey U, Korten I, Singer F, Casaulta C, Bieri O, Latzin P. Novel magnetic resonance technique for functional imaging of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Eur Resp J 50:6 (2017)

Kieninger E, Yammine S, Korten I, Anagnostopoulou P, Singer F, Frey U, Mornand A, Zanolari M, Rochat I, Trachsel D, Mueller-Suter D, Moeller A, Casaulta C, Latzin P. Elevated lung clearance index in infants with cystic fibrosis shortly after birth.  Eur Resp J 50:5 (2017)

Mika M, Maurer J, Korten I, Allemannn A, Aebi S, Brugger S, Qi W, Frey U, Latzin P, Hilty M. Influence of the penumococcal carriage and the nasal microbiota in healthy infants: a longitudinal analysis of a case-control study. Microbiome 24;5(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0302-6 (2017)

Fouzas S, Theodorakopoulou I, Delgado-Eckert E, Latzin P, Frey U. Breath-to-breath variability of exhaled CO2 as a marker of lung dysmaturing in infancy. J Appl Physio 1;123(6):1563-1570 (2017)

Fuchs, O, Gorlanova O, Latzin P, Schmidt A, Schieck M, Toncheva AA, Michel S, Gaertner VD, Kabesch M, Frey U. 6q12 and 11p14 variants are associated with postnatal exhaled nitric oxide levels and respiratory symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol S0091-6749(17)30046-5 (2017)

Usemann J, Demann D, Anagnostopoulou P, Korten I, Gorlanova O, Schulzke S, Frey U, Latzin P. Interrupter technique in infancy: Higher airway resistance and lower short-term variability in preterm versus term infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017 Oct; 52 (10):1355-1362. PMID: 28771980

Korten, I, Liechti M, Singer F, Hafen G, Rochat I, Anagnostopoulou P, Mueller-Suter D, Usemann J, Moeller A, Frey U, Latzin P, Casaulta C; SCILD and BILD study groups. Lower exhaled nitric oxide in infants with Cystic Fibrosis compared to healthy controls.  J Cyst Fibros. 2017 Jul. 14. PMID: 28716479


Korten I, Mika M, Klenja S, Kieninger E, Mack I, Barbani MT, Gorgievski M, Frey U, Hilty M, Latzin P.  Interactions of Respiratory Viruses and the Nasal Microbiota during the First Year of Life in Healthy Infants. mSphere. 2016 Nov 23;1(6).  PMID: 27904883

Yammine S, Summermatter S, Singer F, Lauener R, Latzin P. Feasibility of nitrogen multiple-breath washout in inexperienced children younger than 7 years. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 Nov;51(11):1183-1190.  PMID: 27132707

Jost K, Egger B, Kieninger E, Singer F, Frey U, Latzin P. Changes in minute ventiliation after exposure to 4% sulfer hexafluoride (SF6) in infants. Ped Pulmonol 52(2):151-153 (2016)

Nyilas S, Singer F, Kumar N, Yammine S, Meier-Girard D, Koerner-Rettberg C, Casualta C, Frey U, Latzin P. Physiological phenotyping of pediatric chronic obstructive airway diseases. J Appl Physiol 1;121(1):324-32 (2016)

Proietti E, Delgado-Eckert E, Vienneau D, Stern G, Tsai MY, Latzin P, Frey U, Roosli M. Air pollution modelling for birth cohorts: a time-space regression model. Environ Health 25;15(1):61 (2016)

Egger B, Jost K, Anagnostopoulou P, Yammine S, Singer F, Casualta C, Frey U, Latzin P. Lung clearance index and moment ratios at different cut-off values in infant multiple-breath washout measurements. Ped Pulmonol 51(12):1371-1381 (2016)

Usemann J, Frey U, Mack I, Schmidt A, Gorlanova O, Roosli M, Hartl D, Latzin P. CH13L1 polymorphisms, cord blood YKL-40 levels and later asthma development. BMC Pulm Med. 18;16(1):81 (2016)

Mika M, Korten I, Qi W, Regamey N, Frey U, Casualta C, Latzin P, Hilty M; SCILD study group. The nasal microbiota in infants with cystic fibrosis in the first year of life: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med 4(8):627-35 (2016)

Anagnostopoulou P, Egger B, Lura M, Usemann J, Schmidt A, Gorlanova O, Korten I, Roos M, Frey U, Latzin P. Multiple breath washout analysis in infants: quality assessment and recommendations for improvement. Physiol Meas. Mar;37(3):L1-L15 (2016)

Yammine S, Schmidt A, Sutter O, Fouzas S, Singer F, Frey U, Latzin P. Functional evidence for continued alveolarisation in former preterms at school age? Eur Respir J. 47(1):147-55 (2016)

Gorlanova O, Thalmann S, Proietti E, Stern G, Latzin P, Kuehni C, Roosli M, Frey U.  Effects of Breastfeeding on Respiratory Symptoms in Infancy. J Pediatr 174:111-117.e5 (2016)

Usemann J, Fuchs O, Anagnostopoulou P, Korten I, Gorlanova O, Roosli M, Latzin P, Frey U. Predictive value of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy infants for asthma at school age. Eur Respir J 48(3):925-8 (2016)


Jost K, Latzin P, Fouzas S, Proietti E, Delgado-Eckert EW, Frey U, Schulzke SM. Sigh-induced changes of breathing pattern in preterm infants. Physiol Rep 3(11). pii: e12613. doi:10.14814/ph2.12613 (2015)

Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin, Jakob Usemann, Janet Maccora, Urs Zumsteg, S Kriemler (2015)  Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches. Allergy 70:  1.  26-40 Jan. 

Moana Mika, Ines Mack, Insa Korten, Weihong Qi, Suzanne Aebi, Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin, Markus Hilty (2015)  Dynamics of the nasal microbiota in infancy: a prospective cohort study. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 135:  4.  905-12.e11 Apr. 

Loretta Müller, Ines Mack, Caroline Tapparel, Laurent Kaiser, Marco P Alves, Elisabeth Kieninger, Urs Frey, Nicolas Regamey, Philipp Latzin (2015)  Human Rhinovirus Types and Association with Respiratory Symptoms During the First Year of Life. The Pediatric infectious disease journal May. 


Anne Schmidt, Sophie Yammine, Elena Proietti, Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin, Thomas Riedel, Florian Singer (2014)  Validation of multiple-breath washout equipment for infants and young children. Pediatric pulmonology Feb. 

Sotirios Fouzas, Christoph Häcki, Philipp Latzin, Elena Proietti, Sven Schulzke, Urs Frey, Edgar Delgado-Eckert (2014)  Volumetric capnography in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The Journal of pediatrics 164:  2.  283-8.e1-3 Feb. 

Elena Proietti, Thomas Riedel, Oliver Fuchs, Isabelle Pramana, Florian Singer, Anne Schmidt, Claudia Kuehni, Philipp Latzin, Urs Frey (2014)  Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants? The European respiratory journal 43:  6.  1642-1651 Jun. 

Florian Singer, Chiara Abbas, Sophie Yammine, Carmen Casaulta, Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin (2014)  Abnormal small airways function in children with mild asthma. Chest 145:  3.  492-499 Mar. 

Florian Singer, Sophie Yammine, Anne Schmidt, Elena Proietti, Elisabeth Kieninger, Juerg Barben, Carmen Casaulta, Nicolas Regamey, Per Gustafsson, Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin (2014)  Ventilatory response to nitrogen multiple-breath washout in infants. Pediatric pulmonology 49:  4.  342-347 Apr. 


Elisabeth Kieninger, Oliver Fuchs, Philipp Latzin, Urs Frey, Nicolas Regamey (2013)  Rhinovirus infections in infancy and early childhood. The European respiratory journal 41:  2.  443-452 Feb. 

Elena Proietti, Martin Röösli, Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin (2013)  Air pollution during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: a review. Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery 26:  1.  9-23 Feb. 

Florian Singer, et al. A new double-tracer gas single-breath washout to assess early cystic fibrosis lung disease. Eur Respir J 41, 339-345 (2013).

Florian Singer, Elisabeth Kieninger, Chiara Abbas, Sophie Yammine, Oliver Fuchs, Elena Proietti, Nicolas Regamey, Carmen Casaulta, Urs Frey, Philipp Latzin (2013)  Practicability of nitrogen multiple-breath washout measurements in a pediatric cystic fibrosis outpatient setting. Pediatric pulmonology 48:  8.  739-746 Aug

Sven M Schulzke, Urs Frey (2013)  Consensus statement on inert gas washout measurement: at the threshold of clinical use. The European respiratory journal 41:  3.  500-502 Mar. 

Vienneau, D. et al. Western European land use regression incorporating satellite- and ground-based 
measurements of NO2 and PM10. Environmental science & technology 47, 13555-13564 (2013).


Oliver Fuchs, Philipp Latzin, Claudia E Kuehni, Urs Frey (2012)  Cohort profile: the Bern infant lung development cohort. International journal of epidemiology 41:  2.  366-376 Apr. 

Oliver Fuchs, Philipp Latzin, Florian Singer, Nicole Petrus, Elena Proietti, Elisabeth Kieninger, Carmen Casaulta, Urs Frey (2012)  Comparison of online single-breath vs. online multiple-breath exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children. Pediatric research 71:  5.  605-611 May. 


Latzin, P. et al. Exposure to moderate air pollution during late pregnancy and cord blood cytokine secretion in 
healthy neonates. PLoS One 6, e23130 (2011).

Fuchs, O. et al. Normative data for lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in unsedated healthy infants. Eur Respir J 37, 1208-1216 (2011). 


Frey, U. & von Mutius, E. The challenge of managing wheezing in infants. N Engl J Med 360, 2130-2133 (2009). 

Latzin, P., Roosli, M., Huss, A., Kuehni, C. E. & Frey, U. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung function in 
newborns: a birth cohort study. Eur Respir J 33, 594-603 (2009). 


Frey, U. & Suki, B. Complexity of chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: implications for risk assessment, and disease progression and control. Lancet 372, 1088-1099 (2008).


von Mutius, E. & Le Souef, P. N. Early gene-environment interactions: can they inform primary preventive strategies for asthma? Semin Respir Crit Care Med 28, 255-263 (2007). 

Latzin, P. et al. Prospectively assessed incidence, severity, and determinants of respiratory symptoms in the first year of life. Pediatr Pulmonol 42, 41-50 (2007).

Latzin, P. et al. Optimized temperature and deadspace correction improve analysis of multiple breath washout measurements by ultrasonic flowmeter in infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 42, 888-897 (2007).


Latzin, P. et al. Elevated exhaled nitric oxide in newborns of atopic mothers precedes respiratory symptoms. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174, 1292-1298 (2006).


Kuehni, C. E. & Frey, U. Age-related differences in perceived asthma control in childhood: guidelines and 
reality. Eur Respir J 20, 880-889 (2002).